An 850-year old love poem

Floris and Blancheflour’

1. Eight hundred and fifty years old

2. French author

3. European bestseller

4. Thirteen West-European versions of the poem

5. ”Flanders (Belgium): 750 years of “Floris ende Blancefloer”

6. Diederic van Assenede

7. Commemoration “750 years Floris ende Blancefloer

7.1. Anniversary publication of Professor Emeritus Dr Jozef Janssens et al (edition DAVIDSFONDS)

7.2. A 100 meters long tapestry (90 cms high) : “Tapestry of Assenede: Floris and Blancefloer”

7.2.1. First official embroidery stitch 23 October 2015 in Assenede (Belgium)

7.2.2. Belgian linen. English wool.

7.2.3. Mobile Educational Tool

7.2.4. The Embroiderers

7.2.5. Draftsmen

7.2.6. International cooperation. International project.


8. The lovestory of Floris and Blanchefloer
9. Pictures

1. Eight hundred and fifty years of age

In the middle of the twelfth century, a French clerk who lived in the Loire-valley near Tours, thought to be Robert d’Orbigny, wrote a 3348 verse love poem.

This poem “Floire et Blancheflor” in French or “Floris and Blancheflour” spread all over western Europe and was translated into thirteen languages. The poem tells the story of a forbidden love between a Christian girl and a Muslim boy set in the eighth century.

The girl (Blancheflourwhite Lily) is the daughter of a Christian countess kept prisoner by the king of a Spanish Muslim country during the eighth century.

The boy (Florisred rose) is the crown prince of this kingdom. Although their love is opposed by the King and the Queen, after many trials and tribulations (3000 verses long) they eventually marry. True love conquers all: the story and its themes are timeless.

See also :

The Sweet and Touching Tale of Fleur & Blanchefleur : A Medieval Legend: (Internet Archive)

The English vernacular version(s) – Middle English retellings of the old French romance - differ from the French original - see:

However, the name of the 12th-century French author was not mentioned in the French manuscripts.

2. French author

Around the year 1220 the German poet Konrad Fleck transcribed this French love story into German, using 8006 lines. He gave the name of the original French author as Ruprecht von Orbent or Robert d’Orbigny.

Orbigny is a small rural village (in the French department d’Indre-et-Loire, arrondissement of Loches), which was called Orbineum in the medieval charters. Orbigny is one of the oldest villages in the TOURS region.

It is apparent through his use of Latin, Greek and oriental elements in his story that, as a clerk, Robert d’Orbigny must have been a very literate man with extensive knowledge of the Greek and Latin classics.

The French expert Prof Dr J.L. Leclanche writes:

The author of Floris and Blanceflor has undoubtedly read the ancient novel ‘Historia Appollonii Regis Tyri’ dating from the beginning of our era. This novel refers to antique stories from the orient and the Mediterranean where lovers are separated by fate. These stories may have inspired some of the medieval literature and poetry.”

3. European bestseller

This French love story became a bestseller in its time in all of Western Europe. It was transformed into many medieval poems, songs and prose in Dutch ( Flemish), German, English, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Spanish, Italian, Greek, Czech, Yiddish and Icelandic.

Prof Dr JL Leclanche in the introduction of his 1977 work on the three most important French manuscripts of this poem states:“ From the middle of the 12th century Floris and Blancheflour, together with other ‘love-couples’ such as Paris and Helena, Tristan and Isolde, Lancelot and Guinevere play important examples

Leclanche dates this French love poem around the year 1150.

“The love poem of Floire et Blancheflor is in many ways a typical product of the cultural boom of the years 1050-1250, a period characterised by a very dynamic flourishing of the arts, literature and culture. This era is currently referred to as the ‘12th century Renaissance’, as indicated by Professor em. Dr Jozef Janssens, literary historian in his brand new publication “Floris ende Blancefloer van Diederic van Assenede. Liefde in het Vlaanderen van de dertiende eeuw” edition DAVIDSFONDS, Belgium, October 2015:  [“Floris and Blancheflour of Diederic van Assenede. Love in Flanders in the 13th century”].

D’Orbigny : “ …wrote a love poem  contrary to the literature of his days. Where in the “chansons de geste” and the early novels the heroic battle was predominant, the military action in Floire et Blancheflor is marginalised ...for the most part the story deals with “amors”(French signification), where reciprocal love conquers all” (Janssens 2015). Or to view it more simply : The heroic knight stories are dripping with blood of their heroes and counterparts in their battles for God, the Church and their sovereign. However, Floris achieves his goals not by the sword but by intellect, reason and emotions (empathy). Love conquers all obstacles.
This is an important change in storytelling of the time, which is the main reason why this love poem was translated into each of the main West-European languages of its day.

4. Thirteen  West-European versions of  Floire et Blancheflor

French :
Floire et Blancheflor, middle 12th century; three manuscripts and one fragment by ROBERT D’ORBIGNY.
Floire et Blancheflor (sc version populaire), ca. 1200; one manuscript Paris, Bibl. Nat., ms. fr. 19152.

Maasland :
Floyris en Blantsefluor, ca. 1170; fragment Trier, Stadtbibliothek, Mappe (Dutch) X, nr. 13.

(High) German :
Flore und Blanscheflur, ca. 1220; 2 illustrated manuscripts (Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, Cod. Pal. Germ. 362) and 2 fragments – KONRAD FLECK.

English :
Floris and Blancheflour, ca. 1250; 4 partial manuscripts.

Dutch :
Floris ende Blancefloer, middle 13th century ; manuscript Leiden, UB, Ltk. 191, and a fragment – DIEDERIC VAN ASSENEDE.

Norwegian :
Flores saga ok Blankiflur, ca. 1250; translation in prose; damaged manuscript, Oslo, Riksarkivet, NRA 65.

Icelandic :
Flores saga ok Blankiflur, end of the 13th century ; two manuscripts from the Norwegian version, 3 manuscripts from the 17th century, 11 from the 18th century and 10 from the 19th century.

Low-German :
Flos unde Blankeflos, early 14th century; five manuscripts.

Swedish :
Flores och Blanzeflor, ca. 1312, transmisson from Norwegian versions; kept in 4 different transcripts and one remaining fragment.

Danish :
Eventyret om Flores og Blantzeflores, 14th century, transmission from the Swedish versions;  Stockholm, KB, Cod. Holm. K 47.

Italian :
Cantare di Fiorio e Biancifiore, middle of the 14th century, 4 manuscripts, one fragment and several early prints;
Il filocolo, ca. 1341, more than 40 manuscripts and fragments; among others kept in the beautifully illustrated renaissancemanuscript from ca. 1364 Oxford, Bodleian Library, Ms. Canon. Ital. 85 – GIOVANNI BOCCACCIO.
L’amore di Florio e Biancifiore, inspired on Il filocolo; Venetian print of 1532 – LUDOVICO DOLCE.

Czech :
Floria z Hispanij, a geho milee panie Bianczeforze; Prague print from 1519. These version is based on a German transmission of Il Filocolo: Ein gar schon newe histori der hochen lieb des kuniglichen fursten Florio: vnnd seyner lieben Bianceflora, Kaspar Hochfeder, Metz 1499) – frequently reprinted; on which the theatre play of Hans Sachs (1551) is based :  Ein comedi mit fünfftzehen personen, Florio, des königs son auß Hispania, mit der schön Bianceffora.

Greek :
Diegesis exairetos erotike kai xene Phloriu tu paneutychu kai kores Platzia Phlores
(The extraordinary, erotic and strange story of the very happy Phlorios and of the girl Platzia-Phlore), 15th century

Spanish :
Cronica de Flores y Blancaflor; end of the 13th century, integrated in a chronicle on the history of Spain; manuscript Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, 7583.
La historia de los dos enamorados Flores y Blancaflor (print in prose from1512).

5. In Flanders (Belgium): anniversary of «750 years of Floris ende Blancefloer»

“Diederic van Assenede”, was employed as a clerk around 1260 for the Count of Flanders, and translated the French poem into a 3, 974 verse Flemish (Dutch) poem.

750 years ago Assenede was the capital of the medieval political entity “De Vier Ambachten”, in the North-Eastern part of Flanders, and nowadays ASSENEDE is a rural municipality in the Belgian province of East Flanders near the Dutch border.             
An “
ambacht” was a medieval institution of administrative and jurisdictional  decentralisation within the County of Flanders. It covered  several  towns, villages and neighbourhoods.

This earlier “De Vier Ambachten” is today a border crossing region situated between the GHENT agglomeration (Belgium) to the south and the river Scheldt (Westerschelde) in the Netherlands, in the north.


6. Diederic van Assenede

Diederic van Assenede was, among other things, a collector of an annual ducal property tax known as the “Brieven van Assenede” (“Letters of Assenede”)

Diederic was a medieval clerk. A clerk in this period of illiteracy was a scholar. His mother tongue was Flemish (Dutch): he studied classical languages, and he also spoke and wrote Latin and French. The language of the Court of the Count of Flanders in those days was French.  
One of his handwritten accounts of his tax revenues for the year 1289, was written in Latin, has survived and is kept in BRUGES.  

Diederic translated the French poem into his Flemish mother tongue. This is significant, because  Diederic’s Flemish version of that poem belongs to the earliest pieces in Flemish literature.  

Contemporary Flemish (Dutch) poets (also county clerks) of Diederic were : Willem van Baudelo attributed as the author of the Flemish version of the ‘roman de Renart’  cq Reynaerd cycle; and the poet, Jacob van Maerlant from Bruges who produced more than 220.000 verses of poetry during his lifetime.

7.  Commemoration 750 year « Floris ende Blancefloer »

The heritage foundation vzw Hallekin, active in Assenede, plans to commemorate the 750th anniversary of the Flemish translation in 2 ways  :

7.1. An anniversary publication written  by Professor em. PhD Jozef Janssens

A book (256 pages, 140 illustrations) for publication by the Flemish Cultural Society DAVIDSFONDS ( ).
The book was presented on Friday 23 October 2015 in the church of Assenede. On this occasion the author presented some new analyses around 13th century literature, and positioned this medieval poem, both the French original and the Flemish version, within their cultural historical context.
This is the first publication of its kind to be written for a large audience and provides a base for both primary education teachers as well as  secondary and higher education students.


7.2. A tapestry 100 m long and 900 mm high  : “Tapestry of  Assenede. Tapestry of Floris and Blanceflour”

Hallekin started a visual arts project to illustrate this ancient love story in embroidery of coloured (English) wool on (Belgian) linen. The medieval story is to be recounted in 85 scenes. A drawing of 950 x 900mm is made for the majority of the scenes, although some of the descriptive scenes are a little longer.  The drawings are then traced onto the linen via a light box which gives the pattern for the embroiderers. This tapestry will take 3 years and will tell the visitor the love story.
Prof Dr Janssens, in 2015 thought:
“In creating this visual work people who got out of the habit of reading can still enjoy this historical heritage”.
Hallekin has been inspired in this project by the 940 years old “Bayeux Tapestry” : and by recent Scottish tapestry projects :;;

7.2.1. First official stitch on Friday 23 October 2015 in Assenede

The first “official” stitch of this tapestry was made by the representative of the Flemish Minister Joke Schauvliege (patroness of the project), and representatives of the Belgian province Oost-Vlaanderen (Governor Jan Briers), the Dutch Province Zeeland (Deputy for Culture ‘Ben De Reu’ also for the Commissioner of the King) and the Mayors and aldermen of the modern towns situated in the medieval ‘Vier Ambachten’-circumscription : the Dutch towns of TERNEUZEN (Mayor Jan Lonink) and HULST (alderman Frank Van Driessche) and the Flemish (Belgian) Mayors and aldermen of ASSENEDE (Mayor Dr Ph. de Coninck), EVERGEM (Mayor De Maertelaere Yourie), ZELZATE ( first alderman Martin Acke) and WACHTEBEKE (alderman Jacques De Smet). Did also participate at “the first official stich” : Professor Dr Jozef Janssens; Katrien De Vreese (Director of DAVIDSFONDS-editions); CEO Raymond LIBEERT of LIBECO, Belgian linenweaver; Prof Dr Adri de Kraker; the artist Peter Audenaert; Dr Dirk De Smet (President of vzw HALLEKIN) and in presence of many embroiderers and interested people and the press.

7.2.2.  Belgian linen : LIBECO

The 170 m2 linen, made from Flemish flax, for the tapestry was donated by the Flemish (Belgian) linen-weaver LIBECO, one of the top-3 linen weavers in Europe; The trademark “Belgian linen” is world famous.

From medieval times on, Flanders was famous for its linen and tapestry. GHENT, BRUGES, OUDENAERDE in particular.
The English wool producer ‘Appletons’ will provide the coloured wool,

7.2.3. Mobile Educational tool

The tapestry will be exhibited in Assenede initially; thereafter the tapestry may be lent out to schools, cultural centres, museums or any other institutions who are interested, in Belgium and elsewhere.                                   

7.2.4. Embroiderers

Flemish and Dutch embroiderers started mid 2015 the embroidery; it is planned to finish the embroidery project  mid-2018.
Embroiderers can work individually at home, or can choose to work in local groups.
Mrs Annie De Smet, chairman of ‘the tapestry team’, furnishes the embroiderers : the linen with the drawings on, the needed wool, the drawings-in-colour on paper and digital, and of some advice and information.

7.2.5. Artist and draftsmen

In 2013 local artist Peter Audenaert (Assenede) made a full scale bronze statue of Diederic van Assenede, which can be seen in the Assenede town Hall garden. Peter is the designer of the tapestry drawing story-board and works together with other artists to realise the individual scenes.
Professor PhD Jozef Janssens supervises the designs on their historic relevance.  

7.2.6. International cooperation-International project    

HALLEKIN’s  intension is to create a minimum of two panels in each of the 13 countries where the story was translated to enhance the international relevance of this historic work.
Volunteer embroiderers from France, Germany, England, Spain, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, Greece, Czech Republic, Belgium and The Netherlands are welcome to cooperate on this international project.

Annie De Smet, member of the board of vzw HALLEKIN, is chairman and Prof Dr Jozef Janssens is vice-chairman of the steering team of the Tapestry-project; other members of the team are: stitch-coordinator Mrs Renée Gerits and embroidery-specialist Mrs Lieve De Zutter; formerly embroidery teacher at the Antwerp  Fashion Academy.

 Address: Hollekensstraat, 5, B 9960 ASSENEDE Belgium
 Email :
 Phone : 00 32 (0) 93 44 44 44

8. The lovestory of Floris and Blanchefloer : A FLORAL NOVEL - A CLOSER LOOK AT THE WORK



In the middle of the 13th century the Flemish poet Diederic van Assenede begins his romance like this:


“I will tell a love story that is not meant for uncivilized or stupid people. The story is about a strong love, about joy and happiness but also about sadness and sorrow. If you want to put a story into verse and tell it well-organized, you have to shorten it in one place and extend it in another. This was quite a job for Diederic van Assenede, who translated it from the French language  for those people who were not familiar with it.”


The story is about two children, Floris and Blancefloer, who endured terrible grief because of being in love but who were also very lucky. That's why they preferred living with pain, rather than being in heaven. Some people claim that others, who fully surrender to love are stupid. These are lies. We' ve heard about the love of Tristan and Isolde, of Paris and Helena who were dignified and sincere, which is often told about in adventure novels. But I' ve never heard that silly people would be able to love from the bottom of their heart. Love should be left to courtly clerics, courtly knights and courtly ladies.

True love can never be resisted. This becomes clear in the case of Salomon: even though he was mighty and wise, he had to submit to love.

So you don't have to be surprised that love kept into its power two young and vulnerable children, whom I am going to tell you about.




In ancient times, when spring came, king Fenus- who was pagan- arrived with his fleet from Spain in Christian land.
There he robbed and set castles, monasteries and churches on fire; he killed men and women. When he realized there was nothing left to destroy in a distance of about thirty miles, he asked forty priviliged knights to march into the country and take pilgrims prisoner.
They created death and destruction; many of them bought their freedom with their possessions. A French earl defended himself so heavily that the robbers didn't want him to stay alive. He was killed and his pregnant daughter, who was on a pilgrimage to Rome (together with her father), was taken prisoner.
The thieves brought the crying lady to their king, who was exceptionally glad, for his wife, before his departure, had told him she'd appreciate having a Christian maiden at her service.

The pagans ceased the raid and sailed to the Toledo harbour in their homeland Spain.
Once he had arrived, Fenus divided the booty. The Christian woman was granted to the queen. She admitted her to the women's rooms and gave her the permission to continue professing her Christian faith. The woman served her mistress faithfully. She learned the queen French so that she could use it adequately. The consequence was that the Christian woman found high favour with the queen.

At a certain moment, while embroidering, the Christian woman got pale and groped for her side. The queen asked her if she was pregnant and also when the child had been begotten. Soon after that they started figuring- as women tend to do- because the queen was expecting too.
To their surprise it turned out their child had been fathered at the same moment.

The queen gave birth to a son on Palm Sunday; on the basis of their book knowledge the magicians gave him a beautiful name:

On the same day the Christian woman  gave birth to a baby daughter. She was baptized and her mother named her Blancefloer.

The king and queen looked for a pagan wet nurse for their child, but for its education they entrusted the Christian woman who gave  the two children a tender loving care.

“She started loving them so much, that we haven't found in any of our sources, who she loved most: her daughter or the king’s son”. (Vs 265-269)




Before they were five years old Love shoot an arrow straight into their hearts. They got injured and the arrow  let them love each other very strongly. This leads to exceptional situations.

When they were having a bath together they looked at each other in a very loving way. When they were in the cradle they kissed.

At the age of five they were already very beautiful. Then the king decided that his son had to go to school. He wanted him to stay with master Gaydoen. But Floris was crying and tried to make clear that he didn't want to learn how to read and write without Blancefloer. Shortly afterwards the king gave them permission to go to school together. This gave them the opportunity to tell each other freely what they wanted. They loved each other but they did it  secretly. When they were not at each other's side, they were not able to remember anything.

“They were both inspired by one thought, equally good-looking”. (Vs 328-329)


While reading”Juvenalis”, “Pamphilus” or “Ars amandi”, they also learnt the tricks of love. Stimulated by their reading, they were in a hurry to make love; they'd rather die than being separated for a long time. Nights seemed too long to them and days to short. So they lived in  “sweet pain”,(v.344).

The children learnt to speak Latin adequately; this offered them the opportunity to tell each other what they wanted without the lay being able to understand them. This lasted for  as long as the news about their love was widespread and came to the king's attention.




The king was furious and discussed with his wife how he could put an end to this love. He wanted Blancefloer to be beheaded so that Floris would forget her as soon as possible and would choose a woman of higher descent.
However the queen had a better advice. Floris' master had to pretend he was ill; that's why they would send the boy to Montorië for his further training, where other girlfriends would distract him, so that he would forget his beloved. Blancefloer was not allowed to accompany him, because she had to stay with her mother, who had to feign illness. A fortnight later the girl would follow him.

In Montorië Floris was made a very warm and courtly welcome by duke Goras, his wife Sante and their daughter Sybilie; but whatever they tried to do, Floris could not forget his beloved. Besides, when Blancefloer did not appear after that period, Floris went downhill rapidly: “He neither slept nor ate or drank. His eyes looked sunken, because he seriously lost weight.” (Vs 542-545)


The accompanying chamberlain sounded the alarm and contacted the king who was beside himself because his plan had failed. He suspected Blancefloer of having bewitched his son and wanted her to be beheaded immediately. However the queen tried to make him change his mind: it would be a sin to kill such a beautiful child! It was better for Blancefloer to be sold on the slave market in Nicle and to be carried far away from Floris by some merchants. The king sent for two of them to do so.




In Nicle there were some very rich merchants who bought Blancefloer for a huge treasure of gold and goods. The purchase price also included a magnificent golden goblet, on which you could see scenes from the Trojan history: how Paris abducted Helena, how Menelaos pursued the kidnapper and how Agamemnon besieged Troy with an immense army. On the lid of the goblet, one could see how Juno, Venus and Pallas were fighting for the possession of the golden apple which was meant for the most beautiful. One could also see how Paris was chosen to pass judgement. Juno promised him wealth, Pallas promised him knightly glory and Venus promised Paris the most beautiful woman ever born. Paris gave the apple to Venus.
On the lid a ruby was applied, that twinkled in the darkest cellars. A bird sitting on top held the ruby in its paw. It seemed as if the bird was alive and could really fly. The goblet was made by Vulcanus. Eneas brought it from Troy that was completely  devastated and gave it to one of his sweethearts in Lumbardy. It finally came to the emperor in Rome, where it was stolen. The thief in Nicle sold it to the merchants, who bought Blancefloer with it.




The merchants thought to have made a bargain and were off happily to Babylon. There they offered the girl for sale to the emir. He was so entranced by her beauty that he bought her for ten times her weight in gold. He usually had another wife every year but when he saw Blancefloer he wanted to break  that custom and take her as his wife. He locked her in a tower, where another 27 beauties were located who had to serve and comfort her. He would wait one year before making her mistress of Babylon; meanwhile she could learn the ethic customs of the country.

“ Now Blancefloer is in a strange country” (v. 735). She was so distressed at the loss of Floris that she didn't know what to do. She lamented her misery in long monologues. She couldn't give up her love, although she realized she was not fit for Floris , because of his high birth. The ladies who beheld her sadness tried to comfort her as good as possible, but it seemed to be a fruitless attempt.




The citizens who had sold Blancefloer returned and handed the king the generous amount and the presents they had received for the girl. However the queen was not happy; she feared for the return of Floris and his compelling questions. She thought one had to build a tomb of marble and crystal, handsomely wrought with silver and gold. They would tell Floris it was the grave of his beloved. Necessary masons and goldsmiths were then summoned and they started building the construction under a tree, in front of a monastery. It was a miraculous grave. There was not a single creature that wasn't portrayed on it: birds in the air, snakes, lions and other animals and fish that swim in rivers and in the sea. Expensive gemstones were applied.

At the head of the grave they put a colourful marble sculpture in a way it always kept its hand in the direction of the sun, even when it was cloudy. In the middle of the tombstone two golden statues were constructed which represented the children. One  looked like Floris and the other was a good likeness of his beloved. Blancefloer had a red golden rose in her hand which she held in front of Floris' face and Floris did exactly the same with a lily. Additionally there were tubes  on the grave where the wind blew through. The wind blew the statues in motion so that it seemed the lovers kissed. When the wind died down, the statues stood still and  gave each other a loving look. It seemed as if they were really alive. A wonderful tree was planted in front of the tomb. Its branches bloomed all year round. It was an ebony tree. Its flowers were red and white. Its wood was incombustible and its leaves gave the sweetest scent one has ever smelled. At the foot of the grave there was a fragrant turpentine tree. On the left and on the right there were balsam trees from which perfumed oil was  dripping. They spread such a wonderful fragrance that bystanders thought they were in paradise. In the trees birds sang throughout the year. When two courtly lovers came nearby, they couldn't do otherwise than as showing their love: that was the effect of the birds' singing. However when a villager or a fool came in the neighbourhood, he immediately fell asleep.

The tomb was beautifully decorated with many different precious stones that had magical qualities. On the frame of the tomb golden letters could be seen, with the following message:


 At the bottom of this grave rests Blancefloer

 who faithfully loved the beautiful esquire Floris.




When Floris returned to the royal court he immediately asked for his beloved. No one answered him. He got worried and went to Blancefloer's mother. Although she initially refused to answer, she finally confessed her daughter died. Floris lost consciousness, because of his deep sorrow. Her mother cried it out and everyone gathered. At his request he was taken to the grave when he came round. On seeing the laughing children figurines he fainted three times in succession. Then he laid down in front of the children and cried and complained at length about his loss.

He called upon the death to come for him too. He wanted to take his own life so that he could be united in Paradise with his beloved. He took a case and pulled out a golden stylus that Blancefloer had given him when he had left for Montorië. He wanted to stab into his heart but his mother tore the pen out of his hand and spoke to him severely:” If you commit suicide you won't end up in Paradise where Blancefloer is , but in the dark depth where Biblis and Dido fulfil the farthest corners of hell with their complaints in eternal search of their beloved for whom they committed suicide.”

The queen went to her husband to give the matter some further careful thought. He did not feel strongly about it but his wife succeeded in convincing him that they could not lose their one and only child. The queen told Floris the truth. She let the gravestone lift to prove that the grave was empty. Joyfully Floris wanted to look for Blancefloer as soon as possible.






Floris was sad as well as happy. He was sad because he couln't appreciate the cunning of his parents at all and he was happy because Blancefloer was still alive. When the king saw that Floris couldn't bring down his intention of going in search of his beloved he wanted to help him with anything he had in his power. But he warned him to proceed thoughtfully and to disguise himself “because true love requires much cleverness”.  v 1430

Floris wanted to travel as a merchant. He would take twelve pack horses with him: three loaded with silver and gold, three with money, two with exclusive cloth and four with grey and black fur. In addition he took twelve servants and twelve squires with him, a steward, the king's chamberlain and the merchants who had sold Blancefloer.

When Floris said goodbye the king gave him his favourite horse as a present. It was an animal which one could find nowhere: one side was white, the other red. Moreover it was born with various flowers on its head.

Also the harness is described in detail. It was all very beautiful and really  precious. Moreover the king gave him golden spurs which he had always used himself. Floris' mother gave him a ring with magical power. As long as Floris would wear the ring, no person, animal or thing could harm him. And the one who was looking for something in a persistent way, would finally find it.

Then the painful farewell followed: especially the queen kissed him about ten times . They feared never to see Floris again, which indeed would happen.




On advice of his chamberlain Floris drove to the harbour where Blancefloer had gone aboard with the merchants. There they found lodging with a citizen  who used to accomodate merchants more frequently.

The servants were instructed to go to the market to buy food and drink; they brought the most expensive food they could find, as Floris had ordered it. The meal was festive, the wine flowed and the members of Floris' company soon forgot their fatigue. They felt like in a St.- Martin's inn. They laughed and talked about all sorts of things, but Floris could only think of Blancefloer. He was sighing and really lost in deep thought. The innkeeper's wife suspected him of not being a merchant and spoke to him. She told him that a while ago a young woman had stayed at the inn, in the company of merchants; she was as sad as he was and what was more: the young woman resembled him. Her name was Blancefloer and she was taken to Babylon. On hearing that name Floris got so confused that he pushed a goblet of wine over with his knife. As a compensation Floris offered the landlady a golden goblet because now he knew where he had to proceed. Merrily Floris treated everyone abundantly to wine.

The next day it was rising tide and the wind blew favourably, so that Floris and his company could sail to Babylon. He asked the captain of the ship to bring him ashore as soon as they had reached the town; for in about thirty days there was a big party

where all the monarchs of the emir would be present. This event promised to deliver  a clientele for his merchandise of scarlet and silk garments.

After eight days with full sail they had reached a town, situated on a four days' drive from Babylon. Floris was happy  when he set foot ashore in a country where hopefully he would find Blancefloer.

He spent the night with a rich man who was the owner of the ship that had transported Blancefloer from Spain.

The inn had an abundance of food and drink, also “ verken vleesch ende renderijn” (v 1844  pork and beef). Before having the opportunity to have lunch Floris made aquaintance  with “enen quaden sede” (v 1853) : a bad habit of the country :  through his official the emir demanded a high import tax on his merchandise.

During dinner Floris was again  in deep thought. When the host asked why he didn't eat anything he told him that a while ago some Spanish merchants had been staying overnight at his inn, with a sad lady in their company. She was called Blancefloer who they brought to Babylon. For this good news Floris donated  his host a brand new scarlet coat and a silver goblet. That night Floris dreamed that he was lying in the arms of his beloved.

The next morning he was so disappointed when he realized it was only a dream. The journey continued for a few more days until in the evening they arrived at a wide, fast-flowing water, called Fire. Beyond the water there was a town: Monflijs. Floris called the ferryman by means of an ivory horn that was fastened on a post.

The man saw his sad mood and associated his grief to that of a young woman who had also sailed across about three months ago. Merchants sold her to the emir of Babylon for a lot of money. The company spent the night at the friendly ferryman's. The next morning Floris asked him if he could help him to find accommodation in Babylon. The good man advised him to appeal to the bridgeman, who was his partner. Outside the town there was a wide river over which a bridge was built; tollage was imposed. The ferryman gave Floris a ring which was an identifying mark as a guarantee for help and advice.




The bridgeman Daris and his wife Licoris welcomed Floris and gave him shelter. Now that he had arrived at his destination, Floris overcame with doubt. In a highly agitated monologue with constantly changing moods he decided to stay- despite the danger to life- and to do everything he could to liberate Blancefloer. For quite a long time he was torn between two minds: vv 2149-2153


What fear forbad him to do, was exactly what love ordered him. Love made him brave and filled his heart with courage. “ Stay here” love whispered. It was fear that compelled him to save his life and to go back home to become happy there.


The bridge keeper noticed Floris' distress but he carried on his role of a caring merchant. When after the meal Floris let fetch the cup with which Blancefloer was paid and he saw portrayed how Paris abducted Helena, it was all too much for him. He started weeping abundantly and the landlady suspected him -because of his resemblance with Blancefloer- either to be her brother or her lover. Thereupon Floris dropped his mask and revealed the true reason of his journey.


According to Daris Blancefloer's liberation was a highly dangerous, even impossible task. The emir was allmighty. Deceit nor power nor magic could benifit. Moreover, the place where Blancefloer was staying was almost unattainable. Babylon was protected by a thick circular wall, 27 fathems high. There were no less than 33 steal gates and an equal amount of towers. The city where people were partying throughout the year, had the highest towers one had ever beheld. They were all guarded by seven hundred mighty knights. But the circular tower in the middle of the town exceeded all the others: it was a hundred fathems high and carved out of red marble. On top of the spire there was a precious apple which was topped by a ruby. It sparkled so brightly that even at night it illuminated the whole town.

The tower consisted of four floors. The floors were made of pure marble and had no other support than a crystal pillar in the middle that went up right through each floor; therethrough a clear fountain squirted water up to the top floor via an ingenious system. Blancefloer was staying on the top floor; she and about 140 companions  had superb, separate rooms. The doors were made of hard-wearing ebony; the window frames were of myrrh, a type of wood that spread a lovely scent. No fly, no mosquito or any other insect could come through the windows to bother the ladies. Because so many ladies were staying there the tower was called “ der jonckfrouwen tor” (the ladies tower).


The tower guard was so malicious that no one dared to approach the tower, unless he had a good reason to do so. In addition each floor was guarded by four cruel, armed men; sorcery made sure they were kept awake and they were vigilant both night and day.

It was a habit of the emir to keep a particular woman precisely during one year. As beautiful as she was, after a year she was beheaded in front of all vassals, so that no one else still could possess her. Then he summoned all the women to the tower, to an enclosed garden through which a river flowed that came from Paradise. By the way, the exceptional beauty of nature reminded one of Paradise. Throughout the year the garden was in full bloom and the birds sang uninterruptedly. In the middle of that magnificent garden a fountain rose and above it a tree grew. All the women had to walk past the fountain: when the water was staying clear the lady was still a virgin; when the water was clouding the woman coloured blood-red which meant she was no longer a virgin. The girl on whom a flower from the tree fell was the emir's chosen one  for the following year. But he cheated because if there was a girl that was enjoying his preference, he made sure the flower fell on her.


Within a month the emir would summon his nobles by means of his sorcery to celebrate his wedding. Daris had heard that the emir fell in love with Blancefloer and he would indicate her as his favourite beloved. He was even ready to keep her all his life and to end  his terrible custom. Floris begged his host for advice. Daris thought it would be a good idea for Floris to pose as an architect who wanted to build a similar tower in his own country.

“When the tower watchman will hear of those ambitious plans he'll drop his glimness and invite you to a game of chess. If you win you'll have to return his own stake and yours, but afterwards you'll have to raise the stakes systematically. Meanwhile take your goblet with you because he' ll want to possess it. Finally give him the goblet as a present, as a sign of your friendship. He' ll then promise you fidelity and  will be helpful to achieve your goal.”




The next morning, accompanied by three squires Floris drove to the tower and there he pretended to take measurements. Furiously the watchman came upon him but when he saw Floris' rich appearance and when he heard about his ambitious plans, he soon acted calmly. He invited him for a game of chess. Floris was willing to do so on one condition: it should be a big bet. It was set at one hundred golden coins. Floris won but gave the watchman – to his surprise- his own stake and the watchman's.

The next day there was the same scenario with twice the stake. On the third day Floris brought his golden goblet and redoubled the stake again. It was an excellent game but Floris succeeded in checkmating his opponent with his bishop. Again Floris gave both their stakes to the gatekeeper who was very upset and wanted to play again, the goblet being the stake. Floris refused. The tower watchman invited him to his home for a meal. He was pondering about how he could get hold of the goblet. He even wanted to buy it for a thousand gold marks, but Floris gave it as a present to win his friendship. In the garden the tower watchman  expressed his faith towards Floris and secretly he became his servant.

Now that he was sure of the guard's help, he confessed his plans. The guard realized Floris had lead him up the garden path but nevertheless he decided to help him. Within three days Floris had to return; it was on May 1st. He would pick the first flowers and together with Floris, hidden in a flowerbasket, he would let them bring to the tower. Floris was deliriously happy because he would see his beloved. What might happen afterwards let him cold. The watchman was terrified but he let fill several baskets with a wealth of columbines, lilies, roses and violets.




At last it was 1st May. As agreed Floris was wearing a red coat because he didn't want to attract attention in account of his clothes between the red roses. He was hidden in the flowerbasket !  The tower watchman put a wreath of roses on Floris' head. Then he ordered to bring the basket with roses to the highest floor of the tower, as a present for Blancefloer. Two strong servants climbed up the crystal pillar and reached the top floor,  but by mistake they put the basket in the room next to Blancefloer's. It was Clarijs' room. She was German and a good friend of Blancefloer. Their rooms were next to each other and connected by a communicating door.

In the  morning and in the evening both girls were on duty in the emir's bedroom.

Lady Clarijs chose a rose from the basket and Floris, under the illusion it was Blancefloer, jumped out of the basket. The lady was terrified, screamed and made such an awful lot of noise that all other ladies came up to her. Floris crept again into the basket and the shocked lady came to herself. She remembered she had heard Blancefloer talking about her Spanish friend. She invented an excuse: a butterfly had flown from the flowers onto her face which was the reason of her shouting. Then all the ladies went back to their rooms. Clarijs closed the door and went to Blancefloer. She urged her to come and watch the flowers. This proposal elicited only complaints from Blancefloer and even the intention to commit suicide before marrying the emir. However Clarijs insisted; meanwhile Floris had turned out from the basket again. Then an incredible moment followed: the two lovers met and were unable to say something. First they came walking up to each other silently and embraced. Then they clung to each other, kissed and hugged so longlasting, that you could have covered more than one mile in the same time. When they finally stopped kissing they smiled silently.

The beloved ones asked Clarijs not to betray them, which she solemnly promised. They would share food and drink. Blancefloer took Floris to her room; they were blissfully happy and told each other about their experiences.




Clarijs did everything she could to hide the fortune of the young couple. But the wheel of Fortuna kept turning mercilessly. From the regained happiness she would throw the lovers again into deep misery.

One morning Clarijs woke up when the day had already progressed. Blancefloer hardly reacted to her friend's calling and dozed off again, because she felt very sleepy.  Clarijs went to the emir on her own. He was astonished not to see Blancefloer. Clarijs told him Blancefloer had a good excuse, because all night long she had been praying for his well-being. That was all right for the emir.

Another morning they were late again. Clarijs called Blancefloer but Floris held her close to him. They kissed and embraced each other till they fell asleep again. When Clarijs arrived at the emir's alone, he got suspicious and ordered his chamberlain to have a look and to find out where Blancefloer was. The chamberlain had not seen Clarijs at the emir's and he went to Blancefloer's room; he saw two people blissfully in bed, but he thought it was Clarijs and Blancefloer. When the emir heard about this, he got aware of the deceit. With bare sword  he hurried to the upper floor and saw the two children in bed, most deeply embraced.  Because he also doubted he let them bare their breast and discovered furiously that one of them was a man. He was about to kill them when the two youngsters woke up with a start, thinking their final hour had come. The emir felt deeply hurt. His honour, his authority and his love had been harmed. He cursed Blancefloer as a whore. In a rage he called Floris to an account before killing them. Floris could only confess their mutual love but he begged not to be executed without a judgement being pronounced. The emir admitted.




The annual holiday had come on which a new wife for the emir was chosen. All the leading figures of the empire had gathered in the hall where the knights normally met. The interior was exceptionally beautiful. Neither in Thebe nor in Troy such a precious palace had ever been built. At the golden entrance gate there were strange scenes: at the top one saw the sky and down one could see the earth; in between a bright light was shining. Around the earth there was the sea. On earth one saw people and animals, mountains, valleys, rivers and woods. One could not imagine a single living creature that was not depicted there.

When everyone was seated the process began. The emir gave a full account and appealed to his subjects  to revenge the indignity that had been done to him. Everyone wanted vengeance and wanted to condemn the children to the most cruel death. King Alfages however reprimanded the excited crowd for the shouting; the accused ones should been given the opportunity to tell their truth. But the proud Arabian king Gaifier required an immediate execution; after all the children had been caught in the act.  Everyone agreed. The two children were fetched. They constantly gave each other a meaningful look and they started to get deep compassion for each other. Floris took all the blame and hoped the emir would spare Blancefloer; he gave her the ring which would protect her from death. But Blancefloer took the blame as well  and refused the ring. During the loving quarrel that followed, the ring fell on the ground. Meanwhile the lovers continued arguing about the possibility of dying first.

The two young people were led towards the emir. No one had ever seen neither such a beautiful man- more beautiful than Absalom- nor such a graceful lady. All the people at the meeting were impressed by such a lot of beauty, but the emir stayed firm. He let them undress and ordered to tie them up firmly and lead them to a stake outside the palace.

Then the duke came with the ring for the emir; he was crying and kneeled. He told him what he had heard of the beloved couple while they were coming down from the stairs and led into the hall. This intrigued the emir and he wanted to hear their story himself. Floris pleaded to let Blancefloer live: she was not to blame. From her side Blancefloer begged to take away her life and to save his. When the emir personally wanted to behead them, they both stuck out their neck to be killed first. The emir was overwhelmed by emotion and by his love for Blancefloer. His sword fell on the ground. At that moment everyone chose the children's side. Now the duke with the ring addressed the assembly and argued that the emir's honour was more suited with forgiveness than with a crude act of revenge. Moreover he would not have committed the sin of manslaughter. Everyone agreed and also the emir appreciated the new advice. He wanted to follow it on condition Floris would tell him how he had got into the tower. But Floris refused because he didn't want to betray anybody. Again the emir inflamed with anger and refused to grant mercy. Then a bishop stepped forward and pleaded to forgive all those people who had cooperated with Floris. « Everyone agreed: it would be a very noble deed to grant mercy to everyone in this matter.” v 496)

The emir did no longer want to go against the wishes of his subjects. He forgave the beloved couple and all those who had helped him.

The two young people were overjoyed about it and now Floris could tell his story, without any restriction. The story impressed the emir, who even had to laugh at it when he heard how Floris had been carried upstairs in the basket. Then the noble emir asked Floris to take a seat beside him and he gave him Blancefloer's hand. The lovers fell down at the emir's feet. He kissed them and let them stand up again.




As is customary in his country the emir dubbed Floris. Clarijs became the emir's wife  for the rest of his life. In the presence of his subjects, he let her crown as a queen. Then he attended Blancefloer to church to celebrate Floris' and Blancefloer's wedding. There were a lot of musicians playing stringed instruments: viols,  harps and guitars. Music sounded everywhere. Quality and abundance characterized the meal. The emir chaired the celebration, next to him was Clarijs and on the other side the wedding couple was seated. While they were enjoying the feast, two knights appeared with sealed letters for Floris. They asked the young man to travel to Spain immediately because both his parents had died. He had to govern the country urgently.

So from necessity Floris and Blancefloer had to leave, overloaded with gold and silver which the emir granted them generously. Once they were back in Spain Floris and Blancefloer were crowned king and queen. To express his love Floris let himself baptize together with all his subjects. Afterwards he inherited Hungary and Bulgaria from an uncle. His wife gave him a daughter: her name was Bertha with the big feet. She would become the wife of the mighty king Pepijn. That was Charlemagne's father about whom a lot more still could be told.

Floris has had to endure a lot for his beloved. He worked himself to death for her, always with God's help. May God always be on our sides too. Amen



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